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Which of the following is/are correct as discussed in the article by TS Bailey et al, A novel pen-based Bluetooth-enabled insulin delivery system with insulin dose tracking and advice:
a. Insulin pen devices have been on the market since 1982
b. Pens have not demonstrated to be more accurate in dose delivery than vial and syringe, and more studies are recommended
c. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lasalvia and colleagues found improvements in mean change in A1c, percentage of patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia, adherence, and persistence among insulin pen users versus vial and syringe
d. a. and c.

Submit is supported by independent educational grants from Insulet Corporation, Madrigal Pharmaceuticals, MannKind Corporation, Medtronic, Stanford University, and Tandem Diabetes Care, Inc.
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